The concept of Adam Smith's pin factory, as described in 'The Wealth of Nations':

To take an example, therefore, from a very trifling manufacture; but one in which the division of labour has been very often taken notice of...

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The idea of specialization and greater productivity is further detailed by Thomas Sowell in 'Basic Economics':

The perennial desire to 'eliminate the middleman' is perennially thwarted by economic reality. The range of human knowledge and expertise...

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